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» Response of Various Marine Animals to Ocean Acidification and Warming

» FACE Experiments and Grassland Species

» Effects of Ocean Acidification on Fish

» Response of Fish to Ocean Warming

» Additional Grounds for Rejecting Biofuels

» The Global Medieval Warm Period

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» Water Use Efficiency of Agricultural Species

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» Effects of Increased C02 on Herbaceous Plant Pests

» Medieval Warm Period in Northern Europe

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» Response of Crustaceans to Ocean Warming

» Energy Inefficiencies of Biofuels

» Response of Marine Plants to Changes in Temperature

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Climate Science: Roger Pielke Sr. Research Group

» Roger Pielke Sr. is now on Twitter!

» 2012 Climate Science Weblog in Review by Dallas Jean Staley – A Guest Post

» The Weblog Is Retiring

» Publication Of “Reply to “Comment On ‘Ocean Heat Content And Earth’s Radiation Imbalance. II. Relation To Climate Shifts’ ” by Nuccitelli Et Al. By Douglass and Knox 2012

» Q&A From A Group Of Retired NASA Personnel And Associates

» The Importance of Land Use/Land Practices On Climate – A Perspective From Jon Foley

» Interview With James Wynn In The English Department At Carnegie Mellon University

» University Of Alabama At Huntsville October 2012 Lower Tropospheric Temperature Analysis

» USA Election Day 2012

» New Paper “Climatic Variability Over Time Scales Spanning Nine Orders of Magnitude: Connecting Milankovitch Cycles With Hurst–Kolmogorov Dynamics” By Markonis And Koutsoyiannis

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» “Unprecedented” Model Discrepancy

» Sheep Mountain Update

» Anti-SLAPP Hearing Today

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» PAGES2K and Nature’s Policy against Self-Plagiarism

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» Gergis and the PAGES2K Regional Average

» The Kaufman Tautology

» Warmest since, uh, the Medieval Warm Period

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Watts Up With That?

» #AGU14 – NOAA establishes ‘tipping points’ for sea level rise related flooding

» Ironically, Change Catches Up With Climate Change Alarmists in Lima

» New solar ‘climate’ explorer spacecraft to be launched

» New Study: Two Thousand Years of Northern European Summer Temperatures Show a Downward Trend

» Early Results from NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 Mission to be presented at #AGU14 via Live Stream

» Arctic Albedo Variations

» From #AGU14 – satellites detect albedo change in the Arctic, resulting in more absorbed solar radiation

» DECC Forced To Release Data Showing Impact Of Climate Policies On Energy Prices

» Hump Day Hilarity – model the bouncing ball

» #Santabomb winter storm predicted for Northeastern U.S. at Christmas

» Good news from #AGU14 ‘Arctic sea ice is holding up to global warming better than expected’

» Day two at #AGU14 – no photos allowed, but lots of beer and ‘big oil’ funding flowed

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Global Warming News

» HBO’s Saving My Tomorrow Is Too Boring & Gloomy To Instill Global Warming Alarmism in Kids

» The Absurd Reach of EPA’s/USACE’s Clean Water Act Jurisdictional Rule

» Japan’s Turn to Coal Belies Claim That Climate Change Mitigation Comes Cheap

» Thanks to EPA’s Clean Power Plan, New England’s Expensive Electricity Reality Could Be the Nation’s Fate

» Weekend Media Roundup: COP-20 Ignored by Sunday Talkies, Platts Interview on North Dakota Oil Regulations, and Video of Greenpeace Activists Damaging World Heritage Site

» Cooler Heads Digest 12 December 2014

» EPA Should Re-Examine Climate Rule’s Scientific Basis – Part II

» 4th Report from COP-20 in Lima: Secretary of State John Kerry Tries To Out-Gore Al Gore

» Confused Obama Administration Sends Mixed Messages on Whether Low Oil Prices Benefit Americans

» Three Circuit Court Cases Could Significantly Clarify “Bright Line” in Jurisdiction between Federal & State Government in Overseeing Power Sector

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Fox News - Climate Change Stories

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Michelle Malkin - Enviro-Nitwits

» Priorities: Obama admin tasks healthcare facilities with focusing more on … climate change

» Obama’s 2011 prediction of a million electric vehicles on the road by 2015 **barely missed

» Berkeley City Council votes to put ‘climate change’ warning labels on gas pumps

» White House: Do something about ‘climate change’ or prepare for a fiery death — or worse

» ‘XL’ in Keystone XL stands for X-tra Lethal, says abortion advocate Barbara Boxer; Updated

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DailyTech Michael Asher`s blog

» Will the Real Antarctica Please Stand Up?

» Global Warming May Decrease Hurricanes, Research Suggests

» Japanese Report Disputes Human Cause for Global Warming

» Sea Ice Ends Year at Same Level as 1979

» A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the (Climate) Forum

» Climate Report Downgrades Ice Loss; Media Reports Opposite

» Princeton Physicist Calls Global Warming Science "Mistaken"

» Defying Predictions, Sea Level Rise Begins to Slow

» Electric Car Sales in Freefall; Industry Risks Collapse

» Glaciers in Norway Growing Again

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C3 - Climate Cycles Change

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CATO - Global Warming

» The Link between the Ruble and Keynes

» The Cuba Opening: American Foreign Policy Meets Reality

» President Obama Right to Call for Trade with Cuba: Half Century of Failed Embargo Is Enough

» The Court and Obamacare

» The Goal of Sanctions Shouldn't Be to Wreck Russia's Economy

» When Will Court Trials Begin on CIA Torturers or Their Government Authorizers?

» Libertarian Internationalism

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» Socialist Policies Undoing Success of South America's Strongest Economy

» The Cromnibus: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

» Burma Enjoys an Uneasy Peace: Time to Close Thailand's Refugee Camps?

» How Many Enemies Does America Want? Congress Sacrifices U.S. Security with New Sanctions against Russia

» An Honest Debate on Investor-State

» Washington Refuses to Face Contradictions in ISIS Fight

» Federal Reserve Bank Policy Can't Heal Economic Malaise

» The KGB's Old Headquarters Lives On

» At I.C.C., Due Process Deficiencies Mar Credibility

» If Paul Krugman Gets the Higher Inflation He Wants, the U.S. Will Return to Recession

» How Our Government Tricks Us into Being Its Careless Spies

» The Hypocrisy Label

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» Toward a Prudent Foreign Policy

» Not-So-Senseless Violence

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CanadaFreePress - Global Warming

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Some Limitations of the Peer Review Process and Its Effect on the AGW Issue - by Leonard Weinstein, ScD
Admin, Sunday 07 June 2009 - 21:51:28 // comment: 43 //     printer friendly   //     Font Size - Increase / Decrease / Reset

Most everyone knows the classic definition of peer review, "the process of subjecting an author's scholarly work, research or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field". But do you know how the process actually works? Dr. Weinstein does; he has been on both ends of the process. No Longer Supported
Often times, the ones performing the peer review are friends or close colleagues of the original author. Furthermore, if anyone were to come out of the woodwork and debunk anthropogenic global warming, it would dry up that seemingly infinite sea of funding they were receiving. In fact, the "Piltdown Man" hoax, where the skull of a "missing link" was created by combining the jawbone of an orangutan with a human skull by fame-craving scientists, went on for over 40 years because of lack of true, proper scientific scrutiny. They were so anxious to prove evolution that they were blinded in their observations. Dr. Weinstein reveals in this article how many scientists today may also be blinded in the peer review process by the temptations of funding, prestige, and possibly even the sheer peer pressure that occurs within the scientific community.





Some Limitations of the Peer Review Process and Its Effect on the AGW Issue
Leonard Weinstein, ScD
May 29, 2009




Monographs, books, technical papers, white papers, and other forms of published material that are to be widely disseminated should ideally be examined by independent reviewers (generally called peer reviewers) with reasonable knowledge of the subject area. The reviewer may or may not be as expert in the details of the subject as the author, but should be at least generally expert in a broader overlapping field. Frequently papers have material that covers more than one subject area and people within a narrow field may do poorly reviewing the broader subject. It is frequently best to have some reviewers that are knowledgeable people but not as close to the narrow field as the author, for a more independent and broader coverage.

The reviews, possibly resulting in suggested changes, do not assure the final material is correct. The lack of a review also does not mean the results are not correct and clear. It just increases the chance for errors to slip through.

If the paper is very complex or has numerous references, it may not be possible to do as good a review as desired in a reasonable time unless the reviewer is intimately familiar with the work. These reviews are often done within a small group of experts, who may even have collaborated on each others papers. The members of the overly narrow review group may have evolved toward a common understanding on the subject, and if the understanding is not correct, almost all of the limited number of experts in that field may make common mistakes that outside reviewers may not make. However, a reviewer outside that group may not be expert enough to be fully on top of the material. This is a problem without a clear solution, especially in fields with a limited number of experts. There are also occasions when errors in assumptions used in developing equations, or in interpretation of instrumentation result in erroneous conclusions that are repeated in many papers until the error is caught and corrected. For this reason all papers must be considered suspect until history vindicates or falsifies them. A paradigm shift on a subject may result from these types of errors being corrected at later times.

An example of the problems that may arise with peer-reviewed papers occurred on a project that I worked on for several years. The branch I was working with was examining possible methods to reduce turbulent skin friction over surfaces, with the goal of reducing aircraft and ship drag, and thus save fuel. We had developed several successful concepts that gave small but useful reductions in drag. These included “longitudinal microgrooves”, “large eddy breakup devices”, and for water flow, “air bubbles in longitudinal grooves”. An additional concept we worked on was a “compliant wall”. This last method appeared to be particularly promising as a method to damp out near wall turbulence by absorbing wall pressure fluctuations. Unlike the other methods, this last technique required a soft and movable wall, so it was more difficult to measure the drag of a test object. Several other groups all over the world also started work on this concept (bandwagon effect), and our group (and many of the other groups) obtained what we thought were favorable results in several tests. Dozens of peer-reviewed papers were published in main line journals (e.g., Journal of Fluid Physics, AIAA journal, etc.). The main experimental technique used to measure the drag for this type of model was a hot-wire Reynolds stress probe. Test results seemed to indicate a large reduction in drag. In order to independently verify the favorable result obtained with this technique, I designed and had built a large sensitive drag balance to directly measure the drag on a panel model. The direct measurement did not show the reduction in drag indicated by the hot wire probe. After much analysis, I found the cause of the problem. Reynolds stress drag measurements are proxy drag measurements. They are related to the drag under some special assumptions. In this case the critical assumption was that all of the vertical motion energy in the boundary layer was due to turbulent flow, and stayed in the boundary layer. It turned out that with a compliant wall, the flexible wall motion induced a vertical motion pressure wave that propagated as sound out of the boundary layer, so the required assumption was not valid.

Many of the other favorable tests had used the same type of probe with the same false positive result. Those that did not use the hot wire often gave results that were confusing, but many still passed peer review. It appears that since some of the other papers seemed to be getting the correct answers, they assumed they had it also and selectively chose the more favorable parts of their results for publication. The idea was they knew what the answer had to be so they just had to be selective in choosing data so they would be with the successful group.

When my paper was published showing the cause of the errors in the results, almost all of the compliant wall drag reduction efforts ended.

It appears to me that the AGW supporters are on a similar bandwagon. Initially the observation that the temperature had significantly increased (1 degree F) over the last 150 years, and the atmospheric CO2 content had increased significantly (over 30%) in the same period suggested a relationship. Previous analysis had indicated that CO2 is a greenhouse gas, and could cause some temperature increase. The effort to show that the temperature rise rate and level was unusual was pushed by several scientists, and initially it looked as if this might be true. After many other scientists jumped on the bandwagon, because they assumed the hypothesis was valid, they then had a personal stake (funding, prestige) to support the claims. Later data and analysis seemed to show the temperature increase was a local period of global warming (GW), but did not have a dominant component of AGW. This threatened the whole structure of the AGW position, and as is typical when a paradigm shift threatens to occur, was met with considerable resistance. This was further exasperated by the political and social involvement that had started a major drive to cut man made greenhouse gas production, and at a very high cost to society.

Recent efforts by even well respected authors to publish papers that falsify claims of AGW have had great difficulty passing peer review, apparently because they went against the current paradigm, not because they were shown to be in error. The misuse of claims of support for AGW by “peer reviewed publications”, and rejection of analysis because it is not peer reviewed is often used to try to discredit the opposition. This is not how science is done. The facts should speak for themselves.

New technology is changing some of the older paradigms of communication, and use of electronic media now allows very rapid and sometimes real time interaction discussing material and presenting results. Paul Coppin stated in a response to a recent blog “Technical blogs are rapidly replacing the “letters” sections of formal journals as the place where a public airing of a journal article or topic takes place. The very nature of blogs also provides a means for the lay populace to look inside both the science and the process of the science. In the past this has been generally closed to common scrutiny. In particular, science writers have access to information and opinion they had to previous dig out or interview for”. This crossover of discussion will surely increase. Since the purpose of science is (supposed) to advance knowledge, the real time open interaction may actually do a better job than the normal peer review process for much (but not all) material. Formal publications still should be made when possible for unique data or concepts, but discussions of the consequences are probably better done in the electronic medium. One major purpose of the formal publication is getting the author credit for the material. There is not presently an equivalent way to archive and give credit for a publication on the web. There needs to be such a structure made available. The draft of a publication may be put on a web site and left open for review and comments. This might actually be a more effective peer review process for some types of papers since a wider audience has access to look for flaws. This may be done in conjunction with some formal peer reviewing. The corrected final paper then may be archived, but with continuous access to later catch overlooked problems.

Click here for a brief Bio of Leonard Weinstein, ScD




Reprinted here with the permission of Leonard Weinstein, ScD


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