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» A Classic Tale of Global Warming Alarmism

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» Sea Level Acceleration: Not so Fast

» Hansen Is Wrong

» Earth’s Carbon Sink Still Strong and Growing

» Wild Speculation on Climate and Polar Bears

» Illiteracy at NASA

» The Heat Was On—Before Urbanization and Greenhouse Gases

» What’s to Blame for the Rains on the Plains?

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NewsBusters - Global Warming

» Five Climate-Change Claims as Ridiculous as Sharknado

» WashPost 'Humorist' Tries to Decide If Caveman Conservatives Belong in 8,000 B.C. or 3,000,000 B.C.

» CBS Shamelessly Hypes Climate Change Will Cause More Turbulence For Airplanes

» Imagine That: 45 Days After Predicted 'Irreversible Collapse,' Antarctic Sea Ice Sets New Record

» NYT: Scientists 'Startled' at Great Lakes' Rise; Another Warmist Prediction Is Biting the Dust

» As Wind Farm Gets Permit to Kill Eagles, AP's Scott Smith Claims Wind Energy Has 'Exploded' Under Obama

» Column: It's the Global Warming Alarmists Who Are the Real 'Deniers'

» ‘Big Three’ Networks Ignore Supreme Court Ruling on EPA’s Emissions Regulations

» President Obama Mocks Climate Deniers In UC Irvine Commencement Address

» Obama and Showtime Admit to Exploiting Extreme Weather Events to ‘Shift’ Public Opinion

» AP Reports Another Data-Free South Florida Rising Sea Fable

» PBS Anchor: 'Why Does the White House Rub Salt Into the Wound' of Red-State Democrats With EPA Emissions Crackdown?

» Politico Produces 5,900 Words on 'Less in Control' Obama; All Scandals Except HealthCare.gov Unmentioned

» Daily Show Targets Anti-Vaxxers As ‘Left-Leaning Idiocy’

» ABC Spends Twice As Much Time on Hedgehogs Than New EPA Regulations

» Jake Tapper Takes on EPA Head Over New Climate Change Regulations, Lack of Dem. Support

» CBS Hails 'Groundbreaking' New EPA Regulations on Climate Change, Skips Job Risk

» NY Times' Davenport Nudges Obama from Left to Lead World on Global Warming By Crippling US Coal

» 'Everyone Panic!' WashPost Humorist Mocks 'Ice Melt of Doom' Forecast

» Climate Change Crusader Brian Williams Admits 'Inexact Business of Any Forecast Beyond Five Days'

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Science and Public Policy Institute

» Response of Various Marine Animals to Ocean Warming

» Medieval Warm Period in Central Europe

» Growth Response of Grassland Species to Elevated C02 When Water Stressed

» Effects of Increased C02 on Herbaceous Plant Pests

» Medieval Warm Period in Northern Europe

» Loblolly Pines Defy the Progressive Nitrogen Hypothesis

» Response of Crustaceans to Ocean Warming

» Energy Inefficiencies of Biofuels

» Response of Marine Plants to Changes in Temperature

» Biofuels: The Carbon Debt They Owe

» Medieval Warm Period in Japan

» Response of Corals to Ocean Acidification

» Interactive Effects of C02 and Water Stress on the Growth of Woody Plant Species

» Biofuels: Land and Water Concerns

» Medieval Warm Period in Upper North America

» Can Plants Evolve Fast Enough to Cope with Increased Drought?

» Health Promoting Effects of Elevated C02 on Common Food Plants

» Response of Corals to Ocean Acidification

» Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming on Marine Echinoderms

» Effects of Elevated C02 on Soil Carbon Sequestration

» Biospheric Productivity in South America

» Killing Wildlife in the Name of Climate Change

» Natural Resource Adaptation: Protecting Resources and Economies

» The Interaction of C02 and Non-Ozone Air Pollutants on Plant Growth

» Global Cooling

***
Climate Science: Roger Pielke Sr. Research Group

» Roger Pielke Sr. is now on Twitter!

» 2012 Climate Science Weblog in Review by Dallas Jean Staley – A Guest Post

» The Weblog Is Retiring

» Publication Of “Reply to “Comment On ‘Ocean Heat Content And Earth’s Radiation Imbalance. II. Relation To Climate Shifts’ ” by Nuccitelli Et Al. By Douglass and Knox 2012

» Q&A From A Group Of Retired NASA Personnel And Associates

» The Importance of Land Use/Land Practices On Climate – A Perspective From Jon Foley

» Interview With James Wynn In The English Department At Carnegie Mellon University

» University Of Alabama At Huntsville October 2012 Lower Tropospheric Temperature Analysis

» USA Election Day 2012

» New Paper “Climatic Variability Over Time Scales Spanning Nine Orders of Magnitude: Connecting Milankovitch Cycles With Hurst–Kolmogorov Dynamics” By Markonis And Koutsoyiannis

***


» Cook’s Trick

» Cook’s Fake Ethics Approval

» New Paper by McKitrick and Vogelsang comparing models and observations in the tropical troposphere

» Was Lawson Right about the UK Floods?

» George Zimmerman’s Libel Lawsuit

» Abram et al 2014 and the Southern Annular Mode

» Mann’s new paper recharacterizing the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

» Threats from the University of Queensland

» IOP: expecting consistency between models and observations is an “error”

» The Cleansing of Lennart Bengtsson

***
Watts Up With That?

» These are the sort of people we are up against

» Temperature analysis of 5 datasets shows the ‘Great Pause’ has endured for 13 years, 4 months

» Quote of the Week – The ‘Lie Big’ Law (Or why can’t John Cook tell the truth?)

» A brief history of climate panic and crisis… both warming and cooling

» Climate Change ‘stock trading’

» EPA document supports ~3% of atmospheric carbon dioxide is attributable to human sources

» Climate spin – more than just a game, it’s ‘Wheel of Gore’

» New study claims to confirm water vapor as global warming amplifier – but other data says no

» Remember that claim from NSIDC and Walt Meier that the Antarctic ice expansion was due to a ‘processing error’? …never mind

» Who’s really waging the ‘war on science’?

» Germany’s green tech forces 400x increase in power rates

» Analysis of Temperature Change using World Class Stations

***
Global Warming News

» House Panel Hears Testimony from Federal Energy Regulators on EPA’s Clean Power Plan

» New Paper: EPA’s Illegitimate Climate Rule

» Heritage Panel Addresses EPA’s Unprecedented Climate Change Regulations

» Wasted in Margarita Island: Hugo Chavez as Climate Action Hero (Some People Say There’s a Capitalist to Blame)

» Cooler Heads Digest 25 July 2014

» Shocker: Greens’ Favorite Court for “Sue and Settle” Is in California Bay Area

» How Undemocratic Is EPA’s Clean Power Plan?

» Solar Thermal: Hazard for Pilots?

» Platts Energy Week Review: Rep. Olson Shines, Ambassador Pascual Demonstrates Futility of Climate Diplomacy, U.S. Lucky to Lose the Great Global Green Race, and More

» Cooler Heads Digest 18 July 2014

***
Fox News - Climate Change Stories

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Michelle Malkin - Enviro-Nitwits

» Guy who operates dozens of jets and a spacecraft fleet to help save planet by giving up… hamburgers

» You’ll never guess what might have contributed to the current Iraq crisis

» Obama declares large areas of Pacific off limits so divers can retrieve his sunken approval rating

» With Iraq on the brink, John Kerry draws a red line on the oceans with help from Leonardo DiCaprio

» Obama slams climate change ‘deniers’ before firing up Air Force One to go play golf

***

***

C3 - Climate Cycles Change

» Per NOAA, Extreme Hot Months In U.S. Less Frequent After 1980 Despite Huge CO2 Emissions

» The Tropical Hotspot: Still Frigid After All These Years (& CO2 Emissions)

» NOAA Determines U.S. Precipitation Unaffected By CO2, Extreme Climate Change Non-Existent

» Latest Research: "Extreme" Climate Change & Recent Weather Disasters Don't Correlate

» NASA Research Indicates Pre-1950 Climate Change Greater - Modern Global Warming Tepid

» NOAA Confirms: Climate Warming Due To Temperature Fabrication, Not Empirical Measurements

» “While the planet burns” – Elites & Cronies Deny Empirical Science, Push Climate Policies To Enrich Themselves

» Extreme Climate Change: Abrupt, Accelerating & Unequivocal Global Warming - Ooops, UK Confirms Not Happening

» Connect The Dots: Is CO2 Turning Earth's Atmosphere Into A Venus Cauldron As Predicted?

» CO2 Emission Reductions: Since Kyoto Protocol Of 1997, U.S. Outperforms Major World Regions

» State-Of-The-Art Satellite Technology Provides Proof: CO2's Almost Non-Existent Global Warming Influence

» NOAA Confirms: Huge CO2 Emissions Have Zero Impact On U.S. Maximum Temperatures

» Climate Change FactCheck: UK Analysis Confirms CO2 Emissions Not Producing Unprecedented, Irreversible & Accelerating Global Warming

» Those Stubborn Facts: NOAA's Empirical Climate Records Reveal Truth, Modern Warming Same As Pre-1950 Natural Warming

» Straight-Talking Obama/Democrats’ Climate Plan: All Cost, No Benefit & Mucho Pain

***

***

CanadaFreePress - Global Warming

» Climate Alarmists Never Quit!

» Who’s really waging the ‘war on science’?

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»Michael Mann: ‘I’m heartened by’ EPA’s climate regs – ‘If it’s seemed warm to you of late, you’d be right’
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»Study: Solar Activity, Not Carbon Dioxide, Could Cause ‘Global Warming’
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»Obama Issuing Another Round Of Executive Orders To Save America From ‘Climate Change’
»Watch ‘Global Warming Scam Television Ad’


Date published: Tue, 29 Jul 2014 23:17:54 +0000
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Date published: Fri, 25 Jul 2014 15:32:41 +0000
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Date published: Mon, 28 Jul 2014 17:00:50 +0000
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Date published: Thu, 08 May 2014 20:29:04 +0000
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Date published: Wed, 30 Jul 2014 05:38:44 +0000
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Date published: Tue, 29 Jul 2014 07:22:39 +0000
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Some Limitations of the Peer Review Process and Its Effect on the AGW Issue - by Leonard Weinstein, ScD
Admin, Sunday 07 June 2009 - 21:51:28 // comment: 43 //     printer friendly   //     Font Size - Increase / Decrease / Reset

Most everyone knows the classic definition of peer review, "the process of subjecting an author's scholarly work, research or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field". But do you know how the process actually works? Dr. Weinstein does; he has been on both ends of the process. No Longer Supported
Often times, the ones performing the peer review are friends or close colleagues of the original author. Furthermore, if anyone were to come out of the woodwork and debunk anthropogenic global warming, it would dry up that seemingly infinite sea of funding they were receiving. In fact, the "Piltdown Man" hoax, where the skull of a "missing link" was created by combining the jawbone of an orangutan with a human skull by fame-craving scientists, went on for over 40 years because of lack of true, proper scientific scrutiny. They were so anxious to prove evolution that they were blinded in their observations. Dr. Weinstein reveals in this article how many scientists today may also be blinded in the peer review process by the temptations of funding, prestige, and possibly even the sheer peer pressure that occurs within the scientific community.





Some Limitations of the Peer Review Process and Its Effect on the AGW Issue
Leonard Weinstein, ScD
May 29, 2009




Monographs, books, technical papers, white papers, and other forms of published material that are to be widely disseminated should ideally be examined by independent reviewers (generally called peer reviewers) with reasonable knowledge of the subject area. The reviewer may or may not be as expert in the details of the subject as the author, but should be at least generally expert in a broader overlapping field. Frequently papers have material that covers more than one subject area and people within a narrow field may do poorly reviewing the broader subject. It is frequently best to have some reviewers that are knowledgeable people but not as close to the narrow field as the author, for a more independent and broader coverage.

The reviews, possibly resulting in suggested changes, do not assure the final material is correct. The lack of a review also does not mean the results are not correct and clear. It just increases the chance for errors to slip through.

If the paper is very complex or has numerous references, it may not be possible to do as good a review as desired in a reasonable time unless the reviewer is intimately familiar with the work. These reviews are often done within a small group of experts, who may even have collaborated on each others papers. The members of the overly narrow review group may have evolved toward a common understanding on the subject, and if the understanding is not correct, almost all of the limited number of experts in that field may make common mistakes that outside reviewers may not make. However, a reviewer outside that group may not be expert enough to be fully on top of the material. This is a problem without a clear solution, especially in fields with a limited number of experts. There are also occasions when errors in assumptions used in developing equations, or in interpretation of instrumentation result in erroneous conclusions that are repeated in many papers until the error is caught and corrected. For this reason all papers must be considered suspect until history vindicates or falsifies them. A paradigm shift on a subject may result from these types of errors being corrected at later times.

An example of the problems that may arise with peer-reviewed papers occurred on a project that I worked on for several years. The branch I was working with was examining possible methods to reduce turbulent skin friction over surfaces, with the goal of reducing aircraft and ship drag, and thus save fuel. We had developed several successful concepts that gave small but useful reductions in drag. These included “longitudinal microgrooves”, “large eddy breakup devices”, and for water flow, “air bubbles in longitudinal grooves”. An additional concept we worked on was a “compliant wall”. This last method appeared to be particularly promising as a method to damp out near wall turbulence by absorbing wall pressure fluctuations. Unlike the other methods, this last technique required a soft and movable wall, so it was more difficult to measure the drag of a test object. Several other groups all over the world also started work on this concept (bandwagon effect), and our group (and many of the other groups) obtained what we thought were favorable results in several tests. Dozens of peer-reviewed papers were published in main line journals (e.g., Journal of Fluid Physics, AIAA journal, etc.). The main experimental technique used to measure the drag for this type of model was a hot-wire Reynolds stress probe. Test results seemed to indicate a large reduction in drag. In order to independently verify the favorable result obtained with this technique, I designed and had built a large sensitive drag balance to directly measure the drag on a panel model. The direct measurement did not show the reduction in drag indicated by the hot wire probe. After much analysis, I found the cause of the problem. Reynolds stress drag measurements are proxy drag measurements. They are related to the drag under some special assumptions. In this case the critical assumption was that all of the vertical motion energy in the boundary layer was due to turbulent flow, and stayed in the boundary layer. It turned out that with a compliant wall, the flexible wall motion induced a vertical motion pressure wave that propagated as sound out of the boundary layer, so the required assumption was not valid.

Many of the other favorable tests had used the same type of probe with the same false positive result. Those that did not use the hot wire often gave results that were confusing, but many still passed peer review. It appears that since some of the other papers seemed to be getting the correct answers, they assumed they had it also and selectively chose the more favorable parts of their results for publication. The idea was they knew what the answer had to be so they just had to be selective in choosing data so they would be with the successful group.

When my paper was published showing the cause of the errors in the results, almost all of the compliant wall drag reduction efforts ended.

It appears to me that the AGW supporters are on a similar bandwagon. Initially the observation that the temperature had significantly increased (1 degree F) over the last 150 years, and the atmospheric CO2 content had increased significantly (over 30%) in the same period suggested a relationship. Previous analysis had indicated that CO2 is a greenhouse gas, and could cause some temperature increase. The effort to show that the temperature rise rate and level was unusual was pushed by several scientists, and initially it looked as if this might be true. After many other scientists jumped on the bandwagon, because they assumed the hypothesis was valid, they then had a personal stake (funding, prestige) to support the claims. Later data and analysis seemed to show the temperature increase was a local period of global warming (GW), but did not have a dominant component of AGW. This threatened the whole structure of the AGW position, and as is typical when a paradigm shift threatens to occur, was met with considerable resistance. This was further exasperated by the political and social involvement that had started a major drive to cut man made greenhouse gas production, and at a very high cost to society.

Recent efforts by even well respected authors to publish papers that falsify claims of AGW have had great difficulty passing peer review, apparently because they went against the current paradigm, not because they were shown to be in error. The misuse of claims of support for AGW by “peer reviewed publications”, and rejection of analysis because it is not peer reviewed is often used to try to discredit the opposition. This is not how science is done. The facts should speak for themselves.

New technology is changing some of the older paradigms of communication, and use of electronic media now allows very rapid and sometimes real time interaction discussing material and presenting results. Paul Coppin stated in a response to a recent blog “Technical blogs are rapidly replacing the “letters” sections of formal journals as the place where a public airing of a journal article or topic takes place. The very nature of blogs also provides a means for the lay populace to look inside both the science and the process of the science. In the past this has been generally closed to common scrutiny. In particular, science writers have access to information and opinion they had to previous dig out or interview for”. This crossover of discussion will surely increase. Since the purpose of science is (supposed) to advance knowledge, the real time open interaction may actually do a better job than the normal peer review process for much (but not all) material. Formal publications still should be made when possible for unique data or concepts, but discussions of the consequences are probably better done in the electronic medium. One major purpose of the formal publication is getting the author credit for the material. There is not presently an equivalent way to archive and give credit for a publication on the web. There needs to be such a structure made available. The draft of a publication may be put on a web site and left open for review and comments. This might actually be a more effective peer review process for some types of papers since a wider audience has access to look for flaws. This may be done in conjunction with some formal peer reviewing. The corrected final paper then may be archived, but with continuous access to later catch overlooked problems.

Click here for a brief Bio of Leonard Weinstein, ScD




Reprinted here with the permission of Leonard Weinstein, ScD


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