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» What’s to Blame for the Rains on the Plains?

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NewsBusters - Global Warming

» Five Climate-Change Claims as Ridiculous as Sharknado

» WashPost 'Humorist' Tries to Decide If Caveman Conservatives Belong in 8,000 B.C. or 3,000,000 B.C.

» CBS Shamelessly Hypes Climate Change Will Cause More Turbulence For Airplanes

» Imagine That: 45 Days After Predicted 'Irreversible Collapse,' Antarctic Sea Ice Sets New Record

» NYT: Scientists 'Startled' at Great Lakes' Rise; Another Warmist Prediction Is Biting the Dust

» As Wind Farm Gets Permit to Kill Eagles, AP's Scott Smith Claims Wind Energy Has 'Exploded' Under Obama

» Column: It's the Global Warming Alarmists Who Are the Real 'Deniers'

» ‘Big Three’ Networks Ignore Supreme Court Ruling on EPA’s Emissions Regulations

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» Obama and Showtime Admit to Exploiting Extreme Weather Events to ‘Shift’ Public Opinion

» AP Reports Another Data-Free South Florida Rising Sea Fable

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» Politico Produces 5,900 Words on 'Less in Control' Obama; All Scandals Except HealthCare.gov Unmentioned

» Daily Show Targets Anti-Vaxxers As ‘Left-Leaning Idiocy’

» ABC Spends Twice As Much Time on Hedgehogs Than New EPA Regulations

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» NY Times' Davenport Nudges Obama from Left to Lead World on Global Warming By Crippling US Coal

» 'Everyone Panic!' WashPost Humorist Mocks 'Ice Melt of Doom' Forecast

» Climate Change Crusader Brian Williams Admits 'Inexact Business of Any Forecast Beyond Five Days'

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Science and Public Policy Institute

» Response of Various Marine Animals to Ocean Warming

» Medieval Warm Period in Central Europe

» Growth Response of Grassland Species to Elevated C02 When Water Stressed

» Effects of Increased C02 on Herbaceous Plant Pests

» Medieval Warm Period in Northern Europe

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» Response of Crustaceans to Ocean Warming

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» Biofuels: Land and Water Concerns

» Medieval Warm Period in Upper North America

» Can Plants Evolve Fast Enough to Cope with Increased Drought?

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» Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming on Marine Echinoderms

» Effects of Elevated C02 on Soil Carbon Sequestration

» Biospheric Productivity in South America

» Killing Wildlife in the Name of Climate Change

» Natural Resource Adaptation: Protecting Resources and Economies

» The Interaction of C02 and Non-Ozone Air Pollutants on Plant Growth

» Global Cooling

***
Climate Science: Roger Pielke Sr. Research Group

» Roger Pielke Sr. is now on Twitter!

» 2012 Climate Science Weblog in Review by Dallas Jean Staley – A Guest Post

» The Weblog Is Retiring

» Publication Of “Reply to “Comment On ‘Ocean Heat Content And Earth’s Radiation Imbalance. II. Relation To Climate Shifts’ ” by Nuccitelli Et Al. By Douglass and Knox 2012

» Q&A From A Group Of Retired NASA Personnel And Associates

» The Importance of Land Use/Land Practices On Climate – A Perspective From Jon Foley

» Interview With James Wynn In The English Department At Carnegie Mellon University

» University Of Alabama At Huntsville October 2012 Lower Tropospheric Temperature Analysis

» USA Election Day 2012

» New Paper “Climatic Variability Over Time Scales Spanning Nine Orders of Magnitude: Connecting Milankovitch Cycles With Hurst–Kolmogorov Dynamics” By Markonis And Koutsoyiannis

***


» Cook’s Trick

» Cook’s Fake Ethics Approval

» New Paper by McKitrick and Vogelsang comparing models and observations in the tropical troposphere

» Was Lawson Right about the UK Floods?

» George Zimmerman’s Libel Lawsuit

» Abram et al 2014 and the Southern Annular Mode

» Mann’s new paper recharacterizing the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

» Threats from the University of Queensland

» IOP: expecting consistency between models and observations is an “error”

» The Cleansing of Lennart Bengtsson

***
Watts Up With That?

» Temperature analysis of 5 datasets shows the ‘Great Pause’ has endured for 13 years, 4 months

» Quote of the Week – The ‘Lie Big’ Law (Or why can’t John Cook tell the truth?)

» A brief history of climate panic and crisis… both warming and cooling

» Climate Change ‘stock trading’

» EPA document supports ~3% of atmospheric carbon dioxide is attributable to human sources

» Climate spin – more than just a game, it’s ‘Wheel of Gore’

» New study claims to confirm water vapor as global warming amplifier – but other data says no

» Remember that claim from NSIDC and Walt Meier that the Antarctic ice expansion was due to a ‘processing error’? …never mind

» Who’s really waging the ‘war on science’?

» Germany’s green tech forces 400x increase in power rates

» Analysis of Temperature Change using World Class Stations

» Should you trust NOAA claims about May and June records?

***
Global Warming News

» House Panel Hears Testimony from Federal Energy Regulators on EPA’s Clean Power Plan

» New Paper: EPA’s Illegitimate Climate Rule

» Heritage Panel Addresses EPA’s Unprecedented Climate Change Regulations

» Wasted in Margarita Island: Hugo Chavez as Climate Action Hero (Some People Say There’s a Capitalist to Blame)

» Cooler Heads Digest 25 July 2014

» Shocker: Greens’ Favorite Court for “Sue and Settle” Is in California Bay Area

» How Undemocratic Is EPA’s Clean Power Plan?

» Solar Thermal: Hazard for Pilots?

» Platts Energy Week Review: Rep. Olson Shines, Ambassador Pascual Demonstrates Futility of Climate Diplomacy, U.S. Lucky to Lose the Great Global Green Race, and More

» Cooler Heads Digest 18 July 2014

***
Fox News - Climate Change Stories

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Michelle Malkin - Enviro-Nitwits

» Guy who operates dozens of jets and a spacecraft fleet to help save planet by giving up… hamburgers

» You’ll never guess what might have contributed to the current Iraq crisis

» Obama declares large areas of Pacific off limits so divers can retrieve his sunken approval rating

» With Iraq on the brink, John Kerry draws a red line on the oceans with help from Leonardo DiCaprio

» Obama slams climate change ‘deniers’ before firing up Air Force One to go play golf

***
DailyTech Michael Asher`s blog

» Will the Real Antarctica Please Stand Up?

» Global Warming May Decrease Hurricanes, Research Suggests

» Japanese Report Disputes Human Cause for Global Warming

» Sea Ice Ends Year at Same Level as 1979

» A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the (Climate) Forum

» Climate Report Downgrades Ice Loss; Media Reports Opposite

» Princeton Physicist Calls Global Warming Science "Mistaken"

» Defying Predictions, Sea Level Rise Begins to Slow

» Electric Car Sales in Freefall; Industry Risks Collapse

» Glaciers in Norway Growing Again

***
C3 - Climate Cycles Change

» Per NOAA, Extreme Hot Months In U.S. Less Frequent After 1980 Despite Huge CO2 Emissions

» The Tropical Hotspot: Still Frigid After All These Years (& CO2 Emissions)

» NOAA Determines U.S. Precipitation Unaffected By CO2, Extreme Climate Change Non-Existent

» Latest Research: "Extreme" Climate Change & Recent Weather Disasters Don't Correlate

» NASA Research Indicates Pre-1950 Climate Change Greater - Modern Global Warming Tepid

» NOAA Confirms: Climate Warming Due To Temperature Fabrication, Not Empirical Measurements

» “While the planet burns” – Elites & Cronies Deny Empirical Science, Push Climate Policies To Enrich Themselves

» Extreme Climate Change: Abrupt, Accelerating & Unequivocal Global Warming - Ooops, UK Confirms Not Happening

» Connect The Dots: Is CO2 Turning Earth's Atmosphere Into A Venus Cauldron As Predicted?

» CO2 Emission Reductions: Since Kyoto Protocol Of 1997, U.S. Outperforms Major World Regions

» State-Of-The-Art Satellite Technology Provides Proof: CO2's Almost Non-Existent Global Warming Influence

» NOAA Confirms: Huge CO2 Emissions Have Zero Impact On U.S. Maximum Temperatures

» Climate Change FactCheck: UK Analysis Confirms CO2 Emissions Not Producing Unprecedented, Irreversible & Accelerating Global Warming

» Those Stubborn Facts: NOAA's Empirical Climate Records Reveal Truth, Modern Warming Same As Pre-1950 Natural Warming

» Straight-Talking Obama/Democrats’ Climate Plan: All Cost, No Benefit & Mucho Pain

***
CATO - Global Warming

» Ukraine Crisis Reminds Americans Why NATO Should Not Expand: Not to Ukraine, Georgia, Or Anyone Else

» Keep Chopping Federal Spending

» The Flip-Flopping Architect of the ACA

» Conservatives Would Do Well to Resurrect Ronald Reagan's Middle East Policy

» When Money Mischief Goes Global

» South Korea: Forever Dependent on America

» Could Putin’s War be Good for Ukraine?

» It's Time States Were Transparent about Lethal Injection Drugs

» An Economic and Moral Case for Legalizing Cocaine and Heroin

» Reversing the Decline in Small Business Lending

» Stay out of This Iraq War

» China's Big Course Correction in the South China Sea?

» Reining in ObamaCare--and the President

» Fed Proposal to End Bailouts Falls Short

» A Big Hole in the Heart of Obamacare

» Should the 'Right to be Forgotten' be Reviewed by an International Court?

» How Much Digital Reading Stays inside You?

» D.C. Forgets about the Debt

» Pointless Lying about US China Policy

» Regulation Depresses the Job Market

» Why Putin's Proxy War Is an Abject Failure

» Sweden and School Choice

» An Exceptional America Is More than Just American Exceptionalism

» Government Corruption on the Rampage

» D.C. Circuit to IRS: Only Congress Can Change the Law

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CanadaFreePress - Global Warming

» Climate Alarmists Never Quit!

» Who’s really waging the ‘war on science’?

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Debunking the CO2 Feedback Myth - by Leonard Weinstein, ScD
Admin, Thursday 14 May 2009 - 16:27:59 // comment: 1 //     printer friendly   //     Font Size - Increase / Decrease / Reset

The climate models used in the IPCC reports have made predictions of increases in global temperature of 2ºC to 6ºC over present levels by 2100. These predictions were based on assumptions regarding future CO2 levels and that water vapor would provide a large positive feedback effect. Dr. Weinstein (former NASA Senior Research Scientist) shows how both of these assumptions are either wrong or greatly exaggerated. No Longer Supported

Debunking the CO2 Positive Feedback Myth

Leonard Weinstein, ScD
May 11, 2009



Introduction:

The climate models used in the IPCC reports have made predictions of increases in global temperature of 2ºC to 6ºC over present levels by 2100. These predictions were based on two assumptions:

  1. The atmospheric CO2 level would go from 290ppm in about 1850 to at least 580ppm in 2100.
  2. The increase in CO2 would have both a direct greenhouse gas effect, and trigger a positive feedback effect. The result would be a small direct increase in temperature from the CO2 , but the increased temperature would also result in an increase in water evaporation. The water vapor is the major greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, and its increase would further increase temperature, resulting in a positive feedback until the process self-limited at a significantly higher level.

The predicted direct CO2 effect is estimated to be about 1C for the doubling of CO2 level. The present level of about 388ppm would have already caused about half of the direct rise, since the effect is nonlinear. The global temperature has apparently increased by about 0.7ºC in the last 150 years, which is slightly more than the estimated direct CO2 effect, but far short of the expected feedback imposed value. In addition, the temperature level up to about 1850 was significantly lower than typical levels during the last several thousand years. Much of the period between about 1200 to 1850 has in fact been called the “Little Ice Age”. The abnormal low temperature starting point for the change makes the distinction between natural temperature rise due to a recovery from the abnormally low temperature to the present difficult to separate from CO2 and positive feedback induced increases. The CO2 increase was small until about 1940, so the positive contribution from the CO2 is based on an even smaller maximum temperature increase (about 0.3ºC) and a shorter time. All of these facts indicate that calculations of any CO2 effects and positive feedback additions would have badly missed the actual present temperature if we did not already know it.

The proposed solution to the discrepancy by the IPCC is that sulfate gas and particulate pollution from burning fossil fuels, have caused atmospheric “Global Dimming”, which greatly inhibited the correct level of warming. While this cannot be totally refuted, it is not specifically supportable either. Since the need for a strong positive feedback is needed to support the projections for the temperature rise to 2100, the mechanism for such a rise is examined.


Proposed mechanism for glacial to interglacial temperature increases:

It is very likely that over the last several hundred thousand years, axial tilt and precession in the Earth’s orbital motion (Milankovitch cycles). have triggered the transitions from glacial conditions (lasting about 100,000 years) to the significantly warmer inter-glacial periods (lasting 10,000 to 20,000 years) During the glacial cycles massive spreads of glaciers and ocean ice formed over large regions at higher latitudes, and the average Earth temperature was significantly lower than for the inter-glacial periods. The increase of average Solar insolation that occurred due to these orbital variations is not nearly sufficient to directly explain the rapid increase in global temperature, and the rapid melting of much of that ice. The variation has to have been triggered more by the change in distribution of the Solar insolation on the surface. However, once the transition was triggered, it has been hypothesized that some forms of positive feedback amplified the increase in temperature.

The most likely form of the initial trigger was due to local increases in ocean temperature in higher latitudes causing some of the marginal ocean ice to melt, and the increased absorption from the increased ocean area resulting in additional ocean absorption of Solar energy. This positive feedback was probably limited due to the small level of direct increased warming. However, the increased area of ocean and slight increased temperature also caused the water vapor pressure to slightly increase. Since water vapor is a strong greenhouse gas, this led to further temperature increases, resulting in a strong positive feedback. The increasing ocean temperature eventually resulted in large amounts of CO2 to be released, since the solubility of the water to CO2 is lower at higher temperature, and the oceans hold the vast majority of ocean+air CO2 . It appears that the large increase in CO2 lagged the overall increasing surface temperature by about 800 years or so. It is then proposed by some that the increased greenhouse effect, due to the increasing CO2 level, supercharged the positive feedback by resulting in more heating. This additional heating then released more water vapor, and the positive feedback then took off until some mechanism stopped the process (possibly cloud formation).


Present conditions and additional heating:

The present total greenhouse effect from water vapor, CO2, Methane, and other greenhouse gases is estimated to make the surface 33ºC warmer than a surface without greenhouse gases. The direct contribution from the CO2 is estimated to be about 2ºC. All greenhouse gases other than water vapor are estimated to be about 3ºC. Why would a small amount of CO2 , or all other gases than water vapor cause more of a positive feedback for heating that that due to the water vapor itself? If there is positive feedback from just the initial forcing, it would not require CO2 to do something strange, the water vapor would do it (i.e., heating causes more water vapor, which causes more heating, etc.).

Also, since water vapor is the main greenhouse gas, positive feedback would make an unstable system unless there was some mechanism that halted runaway conditions. It is likely that increased cloud formation, or even a haze condition caused by the water vapor, would decrease the effective Solar insolation so that a stable temperature is reached. Any increase in any greenhouse gas with changes small compared to the existing total would be self-limited by the water vapor limiting properties. The fact of a self-limiting process for this type of feedback can be seen by the following example. During a hot summer, the total water vapor content is much higher than for a cold winter. If there were no self-limiting mechanism, this would result in a runaway condition, which is not observed.

There is one way the small direct temperature increase from the CO2 could trigger a positive feedback (of limited scope). That would be if the small direct increase were world wide, and significantly decreased total global ice cover on the oceans. The total yearly average of the extent of ocean ice has only been measured for a few decades, and even though it has recently decreased somewhat, the present net effect is that less than 0.3 percent of the Earth’s surface has been exposed to a lower albedo (and thus higher absorption of energy), and this is at locations of very low Solar insolation. Most of even this ice area change is probably due to the natural variation, but the net change of absorbed energy is not sufficient to make a significant difference even if most of it was due to the CO2 increase. In addition, the melted area is now decreasing as we go into a multi-year cooling period. Historical records indicate this slight variation is not unusual over several decadal cycles.


Conclusion:

Since water vapor is by far the largest greenhouse gas on the Earth, and since the Earth is mostly water covered, it is easy to see why the response of water to perturbations in the level and distribution of Solar insolation would be most important in the shift from glacial ages to interglacial periods. Reasonable arguments can be made for a strong positive feedback of water vapor to explain the rapid temperature increase during the transition. It is clear that such feedbacks are self-limiting, since the increase stops. However, the possible claim that the much smaller CO2 contribution, which even lags the sharp initial rise by many years, can then cause an even stronger positive feedback defies logic.

A recent significant increase of CO2, possibly with a large anthropogenic input, still results in a total less than 7% of the atmospheric greenhouse gas effect. Only about 1/3 of that is in the increase over the claimed "natural" levels. It is posited that this can somehow override the water vapor self-limiting mechanism by triggering a small increase in temperature to thus release more water vapor and supercharge a temperature rise to several times the direct effect of the CO2 itself. Since the self-limiting mechanism for the water vapor is present, this does not follow logically. Actual temperature changes have many drivers, but CO2 does not appear to be a significant driver at the levels or variations in levels present, and certainly can't have the amplifying effect claimed.

Click here for a brief Bio of Leonard Weinstein, ScD




Reprinted here with the permission of Leonard Weinstein, ScD


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